Limenitis reducta – piccolo silvano, silvano azzurro

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Limenitis reducta – Staudinger, 1901

Descrizione

Farfalla diurna della famiglia dei Ninfalidi.
Si trova fino a m 1300 s.l.m. (circa), ama volare in prossimità di aree boscate o filari di alberi; le principali piante ospiti sono varie specie del genere Lonicera.
Specie termofila, si vede più facilmente quando splende il sole.
In Italia è diffusa in tutte le regioni, isole comprese. Un tempo, in particolare, si riteneva specie meridionale vicariante della Limenitis camilla (decisamente più settentrionale e montana appenninica). Oggi, tuttavia, le prime L. camilla iniziano a comparire anche in Italia centrale…
Si riconosce dalla specie consimile Limenitis camilla per gli elementi che seguono (come ben precisato da Paolo Mazzei nel forum di www.naturamediterraneo.com):

  • la reducta ha una sola banda di punti neri nell’ala posteriore e le macchie bianche sono ben riconoscibili (più definite)
  • la camilla, invece, nell’ala posteriore ha due bande di punti neri

Specie simili

Limenitis camilla – Linnaeus, 1764

Descrizione

Farfalla diurna della famiglia dei Ninfalidi, ama gli ambienti boschivi, si nutre del nettare dei fiori di rovo e, dove presente,  è relativamente facile ammirarla, da giugno ad agosto, mentre vola ad altezza d’uomo.
Posata al sole, si mimetizza tra il fogliame per la sua livrea marrone scura a macchie bianche facilmente confondibile tra le luci e le ombre della vegetazione.
Il bruco si nutre di caprifoglio e sverna nel fitto del sottobosco.
Nell’Italia centrale inizia a comparire qua e là con sempre maggior frequenza…

Specie affine è la Limenitis reducta.

Limenitis reducta - silvano azzurro, piccolo silvano
Logo leps.itLink da Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa [www.leps.it]: Limenitis reducta – Staudinger, 1901
Wikipedia

Limenitis reducta

Limenitis reducta
Southern white admiral (Limenitis reducta) Macedonia.jpg
Upperside, North Macedonia
Southern white admiral (Limenitis reducta) underside Greece.jpg
Underside, Sithonia, Greece
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Nymphalidae
Genus: Limenitis
Species:
L. reducta
Binomial name
Limenitis reducta
Synonyms[14]

Limenitis reducta, the southern white admiral, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae.

Subspecies

  • Limenitis reducta reducta Staudinger, 1901
  • Limenitis reducta herculeana Stichel, 1909[15]

Distribution and habitat

This species can be found in central and southern Europe (northern Spain, southern and eastern France, Italy, the Balkans, and the Alps),[16] in Western Asia, in Syria, the Caucasus and Iran.[17][18] These butterflies live in light woodland, in woodland glades and in forest edge, at an elevation of 0–1,650 metres (0–5,413 ft) above sea level.[19]

Description

Limenitis reducta has a wingspan of 46–54 mm.[19] The upperside of the wings is brown black with metallic blue shine, large transversal band of white markings and a submarginal line of small blue dots. The blue sheen varies with the angle of light. The ground colour of underside of the hindwings is red, with a silvery basal area, a row of white markings and a row of black spots. A few white cell spots are also present on the underside of the forewings.[16][19] The caterpillars can reach a length of 27 millimetres (1.1 in). They are light green to dull green on the back, red brown on the underside. On the back there are numerous brown thorns.

This species is rather similar to Limenitis camilla, Neptis rivularis and Araschnia levana f. prorsa.

Biology

This species may have one or more generations, depending on the location.[16] The butterfly flies from May to August depending on the location.[19] Larvae feed on honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum, Lonicera etrusca, , Lonicera xylosteum, Lonicera alpigena, and Lonicera caprifolium).[18] Adults usually feed on nectar of a wide range of herbaceous and arboreal flowers, but also visit fallen fruits, dung, aphid secretions and mineralised moisture from damp ground.[20]

Bibliography

  • Boulard (Michel), 1988.- Note sur la pariade du Sylvain azuré (Lep. Nymphalidae). Alexanor, 15 (3), 1987 (1988): 156-158.
  • D.J. Carter & B. Hargreaves - Guide des chenilles d'Europe - Delachaux & Niestlé, 2012, (ISBN 9782603018460)
  • Josef Settele, Roland Steiner, Rolf Reinhardt, Reinart Feldmann: Schmetterlinge. Die Tagfalter Deutschlands., Eugen Ulmer KG, 2005, ISBN 3-800-14167-1
  • Tom Tolman, Richard Lewington - Guide des papillons d'Europe et d'Afrique du Nord, Delachaux & Niestlé, Paris 1997 - (ISBN 978-2-603-01649-7)

References

  1. ^ Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775 Ankündung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wienergegend: 172
  2. ^ Esper, 1778 Die Schmett. Th. I, Bd. 1 (7): pl. 38, f. 2
  3. ^ Bergsträsser, [1779] Nomen. Ins., 3: pl. 67, f. 5-6
  4. ^ Miller, 1859 Icon. Lep. 2: pl. 2, f. 1
  5. ^ Lewis, 1872 Zoologist (2) 7 : 3074 (rej. ICZN-562)
  6. ^ Grund, 1908 Soc. ent. 23 (11) : 81
  7. ^ Fruhstorfer, 1909 Int. ent. Zs. 3 (17) : 94
  8. ^ Niepelt, 1914 Int. ent. Z. 8 (26) : 144
  9. ^ Lucas, 1923 Amat. Papillons: 50
  10. ^ Verity, 1924 Ent. Rec. Suppl. 36: 35,
  11. ^ Verity, 1928 Ent. Rec. 40 : 143
  12. ^ Higgins, 1933 Proc. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 7: 61
  13. ^ a b c d Verity, 1950 Le Farfalle diurn. d'Italia 4: 52
  14. ^ Lepiforum.de
  15. ^ Limenitis reducta herculeana Stichel, [1909] in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 1 : 183
  16. ^ a b c Euro Butterflies by Matt Rowlings
  17. ^ Fauna europaea
  18. ^ a b Funet
  19. ^ a b c d Captain's European Butterfly Guide
  20. ^ Learn about butterflies

External links

Limenitis camilla - camilla
Logo leps.itLink da Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa [www.leps.it]:  Limenitis camilla – Linnaeus, 1764
Wikipedia

Limenitis camilla

White admiral
White admiral (Limenitis camilla).jpg
White admiral (Limenitis camilla) underside.jpg
Both, Oaken Wood, Surrey, England
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
L. camilla
Binomial name
Limenitis camilla
(Linnaeus, 1764)
Subspecies
  • L. c. camilla
  • L. c. japonica Ménétriés, 1857
Synonyms
  • Papilio camilla Linnaeus, 1764
  • Papilio prorsa Linnaeus, 1764
  • Papilio sibilla Linnaeus, 1767
  • Limenitis sibylla var. stenotaenia Honrath, 1892
  • Limenitis sibilla puellula Fruhstorfer, 1909
  • Ladoga camilla

Limenitis camilla, the (Eurasian) white admiral, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found in woodland throughout southern Britain and much of Europe and the Palearctic, extending as far east as Japan.

Adult white admirals have black wings with white bands. The contrasting colours help to break up the outline of the wing, camouflaging it from predators. They have a wingspan of approximately 60–65 mm and have a distinctive, elegant flight consisting of short periods of wing beats, followed by long glides.

The white admiral feeds on bramble blossom and honeydew and the female will lay its eggs singly on wisps of honeysuckle growing in dense woodland. The caterpillars are green with red-brown hairs and are camouflaged on a leaf by a mixture of their own droppings and silk. As autumn approaches it will form a tent-like structure made of leaf tissue known as a hibernaculum which it then secures to the stem with silk before hibernating. The caterpillar will then awaken the following spring and after a brief spell of feeding will moult, revealing a spiny green skin. It will then pupate during the summer, forming a green and gold chrysalis. After approximately two weeks the adult will emerge.

Larvae feed on Lonicera (L. japonica, L. xylosteum, L. tatarica, L. maackii, ) and Weigela .[1]

Description in Seitz

L. Camilla L. (= sibilla L., aucl. cet.)(57a, b). Very similar to the preceding species [sydyi L. sydyi Led. (female 57a). Blackish brown, with white spots on the forewing and a strongly elbowed white band on the hindwing; at the apex of the forewing, especially in the female, some reddish brown smears. Underside for the most part brownish, the hindwing bluish at the base and abdominal margin, in the distal area with 2 rows of blackish spots, the spots of the outer row being lunate and forming the borders of a further row of whitish spots. The females have a less intense ground-colour, the whitish submarginal spots of the hindwing and the light and reddish patches in the cell of the forewing are more distinct.]; however, the position of the spots of the forewing is different and the band of the hindwing is but slightly curved, not elbowed ;on the underside the black spots in the marginal area of the hindwing are all rounded, there being no band of light spots outside them as in sydyi. [2]

Subspecies

Listed alphabetically:[1]

  • L. c. camilla – Europe, Caucasus, Transcaucasia
  • L. c. japonica Ménétriés, 1857 – Amur, Ussuri, Korea, China

References

  1. ^ a b "Limenitis Fabricius, 1807" at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms
  2. ^ Seitz. A. in Seitz, A. ed. Band 1: Abt. 1, Die Großschmetterlinge des palaearktischen Faunengebietes, Die palaearktischen Tagfalter, 1909, 379 Seiten, mit 89 kolorierten Tafeln (3470 Figuren) This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.


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