Hipparchia fagi – Satiro del faggio

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Hipparchia (Hipparchia) fagi – Scopoli, 1763

Descrizione

Farfalla diurna della famiglia dei Ninfalidi.
È una farfalla abbastanza comune in centro Italia, in pianura e in collina, generalmente al di sotto della quota di m 1200 s.l.m.; è presente in tutta Italia a eccezione della Sardegna e dell’isola d’Elba.
La pagina inferiore è ricoperta da disegni mimetici, piuttosto caratteristici.
Ha una sola generazione annuale. Lo sfarfallamento avviene in piena estate.
Il bruco si nutre di Graminacee.
Il volo di questa farfalla è particolare: si alza velocissima in cielo, si posa per un istante e riparte, scomparendo in breve alla vista per poi riapparire, e così via.

Specie simile

Hipparchia  alcyone – Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775

Le differenze tra le due specie le prendiamo da un bel lavoro (TESI per DOTTORATO DI RICERCA IN BIOLOGIA EVOLUZIONISTICA ED ECOLOGIA di Manuela Pinzari, Docente Guida: Prof. Valerio Sbordoni, Coordinatore: Prof. Patrizia B. Albertano) trovato facendo una ricerca su internet; questo lavoro presenta una tabella comparativa che illustra benissimo come distinguere le due specie:

Differenze tra Hipparchia fagi e Hipparchia alcyone

A noi spetta il compito di evidenziare che probabilmente, spesso, si tratta di un lavoro per specialisti.

Hipparchia fagi
Logo leps.itLink da Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa [www.leps.it]: Hipparchia (Hipparchia) fagi – Scopoli, 1763
Wikipedia

Hipparchia fagi

Hipparchia fagi
Hipparchia fagi anvers.jpg
in Andorra
Woodland grayling (Hipparchia fagi) male Macedonia.jpg
male, Republic of North Macedonia
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
H. fagi
Binomial name
Hipparchia fagi
Synonyms
  • Papilio fagi Scopoli, 1763
  • Hipparchia hermione Linnaeus, 1764
  • Papilio hermione Linnaeus, 1764[1][2]

Hipparchia fagi, the woodland grayling, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae.[3]

Etymology

The Latin species name fagi, meaning of "beech" (=fagus), refers to the prevailing species of trees in the relating biotope.

Subspecies

  • Hipparchia fagi tetrica Fruhstorfer, 1907[2]

Distribution and habitat

This widespread European endemic species can be found in most of Europe, mainly south of the Alps[2] (Albania; Andorra; Austria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Macedonia; Montenegro; Portugal; Romania; Russia; Serbia; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Ukraine).[4] It occurs on broad-leaved deciduous forests, coniferous woodland, grassy vegetation, in woodland glades and woodland rides and, from sea level to 1,600 m elevation.[5]

Description

Hipparchia fagi has a wingspan of 66–76 millimetres (2.6–3.0 in).[6] These large butterflies have dark brown uppersides of the wings, with a fringed margin, a white submarginal band more evident in the females and one black eyelet at the apex of each forewings. In the males the white band has a single very small eyelet on each hindwing, sometimes showing a white pupil, while in the females it shows one or two ocelli.[7]

The underside of the forewings is rather similar to the upperside: The hindwings are marbled of brown and white with a broad white band. The white band on the internal edge of the underside hindwings is curved, while the white band on the underside forewings is often without a significant indent.[8]

The colouration and pattern of these butterflies are an excellent camouflage on the bark of the trunks where the butterfly usually rests, with the eyespots hidden by the closed wings.[5] This species is similar but larger than Hipparchia hermione. It is also rather similar to Hipparchia syriaca and Hipparchia genava.

The caterpillar has a pale brown head with four darker streaks. Body is light brown with a bifid posterior end, a dark brown dorsal band and brownish lateral bands.[9]

Biology

Adults fly from June to September.[6] This species has one generation a year. The caterpillars overwinter. The larvae feed on various types of grass, such as Brachypodium pinnatum, Bromus erectus, Festuca rubra, Holcus lanatus and Holcus mollis.[2][5]

Bibliography

  • Kudrna, O. (1977): A Revision of the Genus Hipparchia Fabricius. — 300 S., Faringdon – London
  • Kudrna, O., Harpke, A., Lux, K., Pennerstorfer, J., Schweiger, O., Settele, J. & M. Wiemers (2011): Distribution atlas of butterflies in Europe. – 576 S.; Halle a.d. Saale
  • Lionel G. Higgins et Norman D. Riley, Guide des papillons d'Europe, Delachaux et Niestlé, 1988, (Lausanne).
  • Tom Tolman, Richard Lewington, Guide des papillons d'Europe et d'Afrique du Nord, Delachaux et Niestlé, (ISBN 978-2-603-01649-7).

References

  1. ^ INPN taxonomie
  2. ^ a b c d "Hipparchia Fabricius, 1807" at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms
  3. ^ Catalogue of life
  4. ^ Fauna europaea
  5. ^ a b c IUCN Red List
  6. ^ a b Simon Coombes Captain's European Butterfly Guide
  7. ^ Papillons du Poitou-Charentes
  8. ^ Euro Butterflies by Matt Rowlings
  9. ^ D.J. Carter et B. Hargreaves, Guide des chenilles d'Europe, Delachaux et Niestlé, 2001, ISBN 2-603-00639-8

External links

Hipparchia alcyone
Wikipedia

Hipparchia hermione

Hipparchia hermione
Hipparchia hermione MHNT CUT 2013 3 30 Peyreleau.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Species:
H. hermione
Binomial name
Hipparchia hermione
(Linnaeus, 1764)
Synonyms

Hipparchia alcyone [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775

Hipparchia hermione, the rock grayling, is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae.[1] The species can be found in Central Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, North Africa, Anatolia and the Caucasus.

The wingspan is 27–34 millimetres (1.1–1.3 in).The ground colour is dark brown. There is a white submarginal band, bordered with an interrupted fringe and a large black ocellus at the apex of the forewing. The hindwing has a small ocellus with a very discrete pupil

The underside of the forewing is similar: brown with a white submarginal band and the black ocellus with white pupil at the apex, while the hindwing is marbled with brown and white with a broad white band. No sexual dimorphism.

Similar to Hipparchia fagi, but on the underside the deep dark basal area of both wings contrasts much more sharply with the light band, and the latter, which is almost pure white on the hindwing, contrasts again conspicuously with the broad dark distal margin. The conspicuousness of the pattern on the underside of the hindwing is especially noticeable in the male, but even in the duller coloured female the band on the hindwing beneath is still quite distinct, although sparsely irrorated with black.[2]

It is smaller than fagi.

The butterflies fly from June to September.

The larvae feed on various types of grass.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Hipparchia hermione at euroButterflies by Matt Rowlings
  2. ^ Seitz, A. in Seitz. A. ed. Band 1: Abt. 1, Die Großschmetterlinge des palaearktischen Faunengebietes, Die palaearktischen Tagfalter, 1909, 379 Seiten, mit 89 kolorierten Tafeln (3470 Figuren) This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

External links


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